The Battle of Slivnica begins
The Battle of Slivnica was a major battle during the Serbo-Bulgarian War, fought in the area of the city of Slivnica and the village of Aldomirovtsi, the heights of Three Ears and Meka Trev, in the period November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1885 (November 17 – 19, new style). The front line at Slivnica was divided into 3 parts, and the ratio at the beginning was 12,000 Bulgarians against 25,000 Serbs.
On the morning of November 5, the decisive Battle of Slivnis began. At 9 o’clock in the morning, the Serbs advanced, but Captain Georgi Siljanovski’s battery repulsed them quickly and without giving casualties. The Bulgarians launched a counterattack near the village of Malo Malovo, as ordered by Prince Alexander I Battenberg, and soon the Serbian units were forced to retreat. The fighting was mainly on this flank, with the Serbs making constant attacks, but without success. In the battle, the Bulgarian artillery helped the infantry a lot, through heavy fire, but despite this, the Bulgarian right flank withdrew to the fortified positions due to lack of ammunition.
While the Battle of Slivnica was in full swing, the Serbian Moravian Division captured Breznik and moved towards the left flank of the Bulgarian positions at Slivnica. The Shumadiya division joins the Danube and Drina divisions at the Slivnica positions. On the left flank, the situation is not so good for the Bulgarians. The Shumadian and Moravian divisions advanced from the south and southwest.
Against the rear of the Moravians, whose headquarters is in Breznik and who are advancing towards Gurgulyat, 1,950 men were sent under the command of Captain Stefan Kisov (see Battle of Breznik). Although ultimately routed, the Bulgarian detachment delayed the entire Moravian Division in its advance towards Slivnica, where the outcome of the war was decided, and forced the Serbs to detach two battalions for cover from the south.
On November 7, after new additions in both countries, the Serbs reached 40,000, and the Bulgarians 32,000. In the early morning of November 7, Captain Hristo Popov and the detachment led by him headed for the village of Gurgulyat, where they met 3 Serbian battalions, one battery and a squadron and defeated them at the Battle of Gurgulyat.
At that time, the Serbian troops on the northern flank recovered and regained some of the lost ground. The Bulgarians counterattack. Captain Marin Marinov – commander of the Bdina regiment, ordered a bayonet attack – “On the knife”, leading his fighters himself and died in battle. Later, the Bdina regiment was supported by the Pleven regiments and a battery. A fierce struggle for supremacy ensued, but the Serbs could not hold out and fled, henceforth the course of the battle was decided. At noon on November 7, the Bulgarians went on the offensive.
Captain Kosta Panica’s detachment defeats the Serbian troops at Ropot and Komštica and enters Serbia, thereby ending the Battle of Slivnica.
The Kremikovtsi metallurgical plant was opened
“Kremikovtsi” was the largest metallurgical company in Bulgaria between 1963 and 2009. After Bulgaria’s transition to a market economy, it was privatized. In 1999, the state-owned company was sold to the Bulgarian company Daru Metals for $1. In 2005, Daru Metals sold the enterprise to Indian entrepreneur Pramod Mittal for $110 million. In 2008, the company went bankrupt and ceased operations in 2009.
The development of a steel industry is part of the government’s aspiration to carry out an industrial revolution in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, reversing the agrarian orientation of the economy. “The improvement of the class composition among the population of the capital” was highlighted as the main motive. This argument prevailed over all warnings that the combine would pollute the air and waste Sofia’s drinking water.
According to a 2008 monitoring report on the restructuring of the steel industry in Bulgaria and Romania. the level of productivity in Kremikovci is 30% of the productivity of comparable European steel plants and this has a negative effect on the company’s business.
By mid-2008, the situation had deteriorated to such an extent that the company was unable to service its debts and bankruptcy proceedings were opened.
Since December 2008, work in a large part of the enterprise has practically stopped, and the main facilities are maintained in a safe standby mode. The government and the receivers of the plant are frantically searching for a new investor, operator or alternatives to finance and continue the operation, but without success. No wages are paid at the plant, nor is gas used daily. This leads to additional debts, social tension and continuous protests by the metallurgists.
On May 15, 2009, the gas supply to the plant was interrupted. The coking plants, which require continuous gas supply, have been shut down. The shutdown of the coking plant is irreversible – its operation cannot be resumed. According to the press and the formed public opinion, one of the biggest air pollutants in the Sofia field has been removed forever.
At the end of 2010, court-appointed receivers tried to sell his assets to cover at least part of the debts to creditors. After several auctions in which no bidders participated, on April 14, 2011, part of the assets were sold for BGN 316 million to Eltrade Companies EOOD, a newly established enterprise associated with the leading trader of secondary raw materials Nadine. The main part of the financing of the transaction comes from First Investment Bank.
According to the EC’s latest monitoring report, the main reasons for the company’s failure to achieve viability are the lack of capital for investments in modernization and the lack of working capital.
The Galileo spacecraft approaches natural satellite Amalthea within just 100 miles (160 km) and the deflection on the spacecraft’s trajectory is measured to accurately determine the satellite’s mass
Galileo is an automated spacecraft sent by NASA to explore Jupiter. The device is named after the astronomer Galileo Galilei. It was launched on October 18, 1989 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis, being launched to Jupiter from Earth orbit. The device entered orbit around the planet on December 7, 1995.
Galileo made the first approach to an asteroid, discovered the first asteroid moon, was the first to orbit Jupiter, and launched the first probe into the planet’s atmosphere.
On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in orbit around Jupiter, the device descended into the planet’s atmosphere at a speed of about 50 km/s in order to avoid collision with any of Jupiter’s moons and possibly carry bacteria and microorganisms of terrestrial origin on its surface. Galileo’s discovery of an ocean of liquid water beneath Europa’s surface had a significant impact on the decision.
For unknown reasons, Galileo’s main antenna did not fully deploy as planned after the first approach to Earth. One suggestion for this failure is the significant amount of time the spacecraft spent in NASA storage after the Challenger crash delayed its launch. It is believed that some of the lubricant on the ribs supporting the main antenna has evaporated, making their proper dissolution impossible.
Numerous attempts were made to dissolve it, such as periodically exposing it to sunlight and shade, rotating the apparatus around its axis at a speed of 10.5 revolutions/min, as well as periodically turning on and off the motors controlling the antenna fins, but without success.
Instead of the main antenna (with directional transmission) capable of transmitting data at a speed of 134 kilobits/s, the secondary antenna (transmitting an isotropic signal) is used for communications, designed for transmitting data at a speed of 8 – 16 bits/s. The secondary antenna transmits 15 to 20 W of power, of which a 70-meter terrestrial radio antenna is capable of capturing about 10 × 10−21 W. By using several terrestrial radio antennas with improved sensitivity and using data compression, a maximum a data transmission rate from the apparatus to Earth of about 160 bits/s.
The data collected by the spacecraft is stored on onboard magnetic tape, and is subsequently transmitted back to Earth during the spacecraft’s apogee. At the same time, studies of the planet’s magnetosphere are being conducted.
The use of the secondary antenna limits the total amount of data transmitted by the device to 30 gigabytes, including about 14,000 photos.
The atmospheric probe’s first parachute deployed about a minute later than planned, causing a small amount of atmospheric data to be lost. It was later determined that the problem was due to the electrical cables deploying the parachutes and that it had actually deployed more by accident.
More interesting events from this day:
In 1414, the Council of Constance of the Roman Catholic Church was opened, which put an end to the Papal Schism.
In 1605, an assassination attempt against the House of Lords and King James I of England and Scotland was foiled.
In 1757 – Seven Years’ War: Frederick II defeats the combined armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1895, George Selden received the first American patent for an automobile.
In 1912, Woodrow Wilson was elected the twenty-eighth president of the United States.
In 1913, Great Britain annexed Cyprus and, together with France, began military operations against the Ottoman Empire.
In 1914 Britain occupied Cyprus.
In 1916, Germany and Austria-Hungary signed an act establishing the Regency of Poland.
In 1940, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term as President of the United States.
In 1945, Colombia was accepted as a member of the United Nations.
In 1968, Richard Nixon won the US presidential election.
In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini declared the US “the great Satan”.
In 1994, Akio Morita announced his retirement from Sony management.
In 2006, former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death by hanging for crimes against humanity.
Bulgarian actor Georgi Georgiev – Gogo was born today
Georgi Georgiev Georgiev – Gogo is a Bulgarian actor. He is mainly engaged in dubbing films and TV series. He is best known for his work on The Flash, Renegade, Military Prosecutors, Ally McBeal, The Vertigo Years (seasons 1 – 5), Farscape, Dharma and Greg, From the Crime Scene : New York’ and ‘Hawaii 5-0’.
He comes from a theatrical family. His mother, Keva Apostolova, is a playwright and editor-in-chief of Theater magazine, and his father is the late actor and director Georgi G. Georgiev.
One of the first roles was as a child in the film “Orchestra with no name”. He began his dubbing career in 1998. He voiced the 2009 film GI Joe The Rise of Cobra.